Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) is defined as the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services as part of a broader adaptation strategy. Its purpose is to maintain and increase resilience and reduce the vulnerability of ecosystems and people to the impacts of climate change.
For a few years, EbA has become very important, as it relates traditional approaches to the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems with sustainable socio-economic development.
Ecosystem-based adaptation includes numerous benefits such as:
Although in agriculture it is also of interest to seek answers to the effects of climate change, and thus help farmers, particularly rainfed farmers, to minimize the effects caused by extreme events.
For this reason, under the European project LIFE AMDRYC4, specifically in action C3: ADAPTATION ACTIONS BASED ON NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DRY FARMING IN AREAS AFFECTED BY CLIMATE CHANGE, Adaptation practices based on Ecosystems are being carried out in the Corvera and Nogalte research plots, located in the Region of Murcia, where the effects of climate change are increasingly noticeable, with little rainfall and increased temperatures.
The results obtained in these plots have paid off. The population reinforcement on the Corvera experimental plot has made a contribution to mitigation and adaptation to climate change. Firstly, it has meant an increase in the diversity of species, being a positive aspect from the point of view of ecological functionality. On the other hand, some underrepresented species have increased their population size.
On the other hand, in the experimental plot of Nogalte, it is important to highlight the important development of the natural vegetation used for the reforestation of rain-fed almond cultivation lands with a high rate of erosion. The natural vegetation introduced as bands between cultivation lines showed little development until the beginning of 2020. During the spring of 2020 there has been a significant increase in size, mainly of Coronilla juncea, which has an average size of 50 cm height and 40 cm diameter of the cup. Coronilla juncea has been used together with Stipa tenacissima and Anthyllis cytisoides, creating bands of natural vegetation, which are sometimes accompanied by other adjacent bands of typical crop vegetation.
The practices carried out are sustainable management and can help farmers respond to the threats and impacts of climate change, increasing resilience and reducing the vulnerability of ecosystems.